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Course 324 Details

Course 324: Military GPS User Equipment Vulnerability Assessment and Mitigation for Military Groups (1.2 CEUs) On-Site for U.S. Military Groups Only
Instructors: Mr. Phillip W. Ward, Navward GPS Consulting


This 2-day course was prepared exclusively for members of support organizations for military GPS users who require an in-depth knowledge of how to analyze the jamming and spoofing vulnerability of virtually every class of military GPS user equipment from the stand-alone hand-held to the most advanced integrated avionics or smart weapons GPS platforms. This class addresses not only the vulnerability of every military GPS receiver operating state to the most common types of jammers, but also the mitigation techniques to reduce those vulnerabilities. In this course, we provide take-home electronic spreadsheets along with hands-on training in the use of these spreadsheets to enable the student to take the equations that are presented in the course and tailor them for a new or different military platform. There is a 1-hour classified session (assuming a secure facility is provided) that addresses several sensitive issues related to specific vulnerabilities and their mitigation, including time for questions and answers.


The objectives of this course are to train those involved with military GPS user equipment to analyze jamming and spoofing vulnerabilities regardless of the integrated complexity of the platform.


Students should be acquainted with the fundamentals of military GPS receiver operation and have previous experience using and interacting with Excel spreadsheets, including an understanding of the math functions supported by Excel, such as multiplication, division, square roots, exponents, and logarithms that are involved with the equations used in the course, and a basic understanding of how to read and understand the Excel equations that will be provided. To fully utilize the Excel handout material later, students need to know how to generate graphs using the results of the math equations provided in sheets. All this will be demonstrated during the Excel work sessions. The materials are presented in a manner that can be understood and used by supervisors, technicians, engineers and analysts whose job descriptions include analytical or testing work with military GPS receivers.

Who Should Attend?

Course 324 is for military groups only for supervisors, technicians, engineers or analysts with responsibilities for analyzing or testing military GPS receivers. You will be able to participate in all of the course sessions with FOUO qualification and in the 1-hour classified session with a SECRET or higher security clearance.

Materials You Will Keep

  • A color electronic copy of all course notes will be provided on a USB Drive or CD-ROM. Bringing a laptop to this class is highly recommended; power access will be provided. 
  • A black and white hard copy of the course notes will also be provided. 
  • (Note: This arrangement does not apply to on-site contracts. Any books for on-site group contracts are negotiated on a case by case basis.)

Course Outline    PDF Course Outline     On-site Information

Day 1, Morning

Hour 1: RFI Vulnerability Assessment
● Introduction (including brief explanations of C/N0 and J/S terminology)
● Situational awareness
● Vulnerability insight
● Military GPS receiver operating states (defined and described)
Hour 2: RFI Vulnerability Performance Analysis (J/S Performance Assumed Known or Specified)
● Typical C/N0 performance summary by receiver class
● Unaided fixed reception pattern antenna (FRPA) receiver   
● Aided FRPA Receiver 
● Aided controlled reception pattern antenna (CRPA) receiver
Hour 3: Jamming Performance Comparisons
● Integrated FRPA/GPS/inertial systems (states 3 & 4)
● Integrated CRPA/GPS/IMU systems (states 3 & 4)
● Excel session I: Range to jammer computations

Day 1, Afternoon

Hour 4: Vulnerability Ranges to Jammer
● GPS denied ranges versus jammer power (EIRP or effective isotropic radiated power)
● Range to jammer equation (free space propagation loss)
● Modified Okumura-Hata (ground-to-ground) empirical path loss equation
● Sklar (air-to-air) path loss equation
Hour 5: Excel Session II: More Range to Jammer Computations Including Hata Empirical Path Loss & Sklar Path Loss Computations
Hour 6: Classified Session (Probable Class Room Relocation)
● Emerging threat discussion

Day 2, Morning

Hour 1: GPS Receiver J/S Analysis Equations (How J/S Performance Is Predicted By Analysis)
● Analyzing jamming effect on carrier-to-noise power ratio C/N0
● GPS military spreading code rates (Rc) and jamming resistance quality factors (Q)
● Analyzing unjammed carrier-to-noise power ratio
● Computing effective carrier-to-noise power ratio due tojamming 
● Analyzing Jamming-to-Signal Power Ratio J/SdB 
● J/SdB  performance (with appropriate Q) for 28 dB-  Hz carrier tracking threshold 
● Tolerable J = J/S received SV power: Used in range to jammer computations
Hour 2: Excel Session III: J/S and Tolerable J Performance Computations
Hour 3: Analyzing GPS Receiver Thresholds I
● Analyzing PLL carrier tracking loop jitter
● Analyzing PLL thermal noise
● Analyzing vibration induced oscillator phase noise in PLL
● Analyzing oscillator Allan deviation phase noise in PLL
● Analyzing dynamic stress error In PLL
● Analyzing reference oscillator acceleration stress error in PLL
● Computing PLL thresholds including all major PLL error sources 
● Analysis of 1-sigma PLL threshold

Day 2, Afternoon

Hour 4: Analyzing GPS Receiver Thresholds II
● Analyzing FLL carrier tracking loop jitter
● Analyzing FLL tracking loop errors
● Computing FLL thresholds including all major error sources
● Analyzing DLL code tracking loop errors
● Analyzing C/A and P(Y) code (BPSK) DLL tracking loop errors
● Computing BPSK DLL thresholds, including all major error sources
● Analyzing M code (BOC) DLL tracking loop errors
● Comments on vector tracking, loose coupling and ultra tight coupling
● Analyzing acquisition/reacquisition thresholds
● Analyzing data demodulation threshold
Hour 5: Excel Session IV: Tracking Threshold Computations
Hour 6: Jamming Mitigation Techniques (Many of Many More Reasons Military GPS Receivers Cost Much More Than Commercial Receivers)
● Continuous wave, narrowband and other constant envelope jammers mitigation
● Pulse jammer mitigation
● Band limited white noise (BLWN) and matched spectrum jammer mitigation
● C/A code smart spoofing mitigation
Hour 6 (Continued): Future Generation Military GPS Receiver Concepts
Jamming to (thermal) noise power measurements
● Communications assisted military GPS
● Signals of opportunity

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